POGO가 공개한 결함투성이 LCS-1(USS Freedom) 밀리학개론

 
 최근 워싱턴타임즈의 기사를 바탕으로 국내언론에서도 LCS(Littoral Combat Ship-연안전투함)사업이 미해군과 국방부에 효자노릇을 하고 있다는 내용이 실렸습니다. 그 동안의 이런저런 문제가 있었지만 현재 해결과정에 있으며 예상된 전력화시기를 지킬 것이라는 해군의 희망적인 주장과 같이 말이지요.

 하지만 이러한 기사가 나고 몇일 후인 4월 23일 미국의 민간 정부감시단체인 POGO(Project On Goverment Oversight-정부감시프로젝트)가 그 동안 미해군이 공유를 꺼려왔던 미해군이 작성한 LCS의 문제점들에 관한 문건들과 내부정보원들이 제공한 내용들을 공개했습니다.

 그 동안 일부분 알려진 LCS-1 USS 프리덤급의 문제들은 생각보다 심각한 상황에 놓여있는 것 같아 보입니다. 그리고 POGO는 수집한 관련자료를 첨부한 서한을 미상원 군사위원회의 주요위원들에게 전달했습니다.(F-35와 록히드마틴에게 가혹한 존 메케인의원을 포함해서 말이지요.)

 밑에는 POGO가 미상원 군사위원회에 전달한 서한의 내용입니다.



원문: POGO Releases Navy Documents Showing Problems with the Littoral Combat Ship (링크


 상원 군사위원회는 1200억달러을 초과하는 비용이 들어가는 사업인 LCS에 대하여 유용성과 효율성에 관한 반복된 의문이 있었습니다. 위원회는 해군과 제조자로부터 해당 사업이 원할히 진행 중이라는 확언을 반복하여 받아왔습니다. 그러나 불행하게도 POGO는 적어도 이 사업의 계열형 중 하나에 관한 확약이 부정확한 것이라는 사실을 알게되었습니다.

 LCS사업은 두 가지 계열형이 있습니다. 하나는 척당 345.8 백만달러의 비용으로 제너랄 다이나믹스에서 이끄는 것이고, 다른하나는 척당 357.5백만달러의 비용으로 록히드마틴에서 이끄는 것입니다. 해군고위관계자들은 공개적으로 LCS사업을 칭찬하였습니다. 그러나 해군은 LCS의 취약성과 관련된 문서의 공유를 꺼려왔습니다. 그러나 POGO는 록히드마틴의 USS 프리덤(LCS-1)이 취역 후 설계결함과 장비고장에 시달리고 있다는 사실을 보여주는 문서들을 확보하였습니다.(최소한 알려진 17군데의 균열과 지속적인 엔진과 관련된 고장들을 포함하여 말입니다.)


 품질보증의 실패

 2008년 9월 18일 록히드마틴에서 LCS-1을 해군이 획득한 때로부터 함정이 2011년 여름 드라이독에 들어가기까지의 기간(1000일 이상)동안 함정에서 680건의 청구된 장비고장이 있었습니다. 이는 평균적으로 함정의 무엇인가가 3일중 이틀꼴로 망가졌다는 것을 의미합니다.

 그러나 해군은 LCS-1의 모든 것이 잘 진행되고 있다고 지속적으로 의회에 말하여왔습니다. 해군장관인 Raymond Mabus는 2010년 12월 상원군사위원회에 LCS의 두 계열형 모두가 원할히 진행되고 있고 LCS-1 USS 프리덤은 당해연도 초도배치 기간동안 예상할 수 있는 몇몇점들을 검증했다고 말했습니다. 또한 해군참모총장인 Gary Roughead는 LCS가 다른 어떠한 함정들보다도 이른시기에 배치되었다며 LCS-1에 대한 칭찬을 하였습니다.

 하지만 Mabus와 Roughead는 LCS-1이 플로리다 메이포트에서 샌디에고 홈포트로 이동하여 대략 2달동안의 배치 중 이 함정에서 80건 이상의 장비고장이 있었다는 사실을 언급하지 않았습니다. 이 고장들은 사소한 것이 아니였고, 함정의 승무원들을 지나친 위험하에 놓이게 만들었습니다. 예를들어 2010년 5월 6일에 함정은 마약운반차단작전을 수행하는 중이었고 이 작전을 성공적으로 수행하였다고 반복하여 발표하였지만, 당시 LCS-1은 함정전체의 전기가 차단되어 암흑상태가 되었고 일시적으로 바다에 표류하게 되는 사건이 발생하였습니다.


 LCS-1의 속도를 격하시킨 균열현상

 2011년 2월에 있었던 함정의 두번째 격랑시험(rough water trial)기간에 17군데의 균열이 함정에서 발견되었습니다. 예를들어 18인치를 넘는 길이의 균열이 함정의 알루미늄갑판부와 스틸선체가 같이 결합되어 있는 복합금속부위 근처의 갑판실 코너에서 발견되었습니다.


(Crack #17 is an 18.62-inch crack that travels along the upper weld of a bi-metallic strip, which bonds the steel hull to the ship's aluminum deckhouse. Crack #15 is an 8.5-inch crack that also travels along the upper weld of the bi-metallic ship.)


 다른 균열은 도장된 표면위의 녹을 제거하는 과정 중 흘수선 아래 부분에서 발견되었습니다. 이는 노출된 균열 표면으로부터 부식이 있었다는 것을 생각하게 합니다. 이 균열은 발견되기 이전 얼마나 오래동안 존재해왔는지 알 수 없습니다.


(A 4-inch crack in the hull was allowing water in and led to significant rusting. The Navy’s Crack Monitoring team did not know how long the crack existed before being discovered.)

 다른 예들로 한쪽 선측의 균열들은 반대편 선측에 거의 동일한 위치에 균열에 의해 반영되었습니다. 균열감시조사에 따르면 좌현 갑판모서리의 균열은 우현 갑판모서리의 균열에 의해 반영되었습니다. 해군내 자료에 포함된 전문가들은 반대편 선측에 거의 동일하게 위치한 균열들은 체계적인 설계상의 문제를 나타내는 것이라고 POGO에 알려주었습니다.

 이 균열들은 그것만으로 끝나는 것이 아닙니다. 균열들은 LCS가 장점으로 내세운 40노트(knot)이상의 최대속력을 심각하게 제한합니다. 지난 5월, LCS 프로그램 매니저는 함안전운용서류(ship's safe operating envelop : SOE)에서 중요한 제한사항들이 있다는 것을 내용으로한 단기운영지침을 발표했습니다. 구체적으로 새로운 지침은 다음과 같이 언급했습니다. '거친 바다(sea state 7)에서 함정은 20노트 이상으로 항해할 수 없고 역랑(맞파도)이 치는 경우에는 속도를 낼 수 없다. 심지어 잔잔한 바다(sea state 5)에서 조차 역랑(맞파도)를 맞으면 함정의 최고속도는 15노트에 불과하다.' '바디의 치타'라 불리던 함정의 속도는 심각하게 격하되었습니다.


 적대적 전투환경에서 예상되지 않는 생존성

 균열문제와 SOE(함안정운영)의 제한은 함정에 보다 큰 문제를 나타냅니다. 마약운반차단작전에서 함정의 정전사건은 위험스런 사고에 불과했지만, LCS가 대잠전이나 대수상전과 같은 다른 임무를 수행하는 동안에 이러한 문제가 발생한다면 사고는 돌이킬 수 없는 사태를 초래할 수 있습니다.

 함정의 균열과 수많은 장비고장은 함정 승무원들을 위험에 빠지게 만듭니다. 2011연도 국방부의 DOT&E 연례보고서에 따르면 LCS는 "적대적 전투환경에서 생존을 예상할 수 없다."라고 표현했습니다.

 LCS-1과 관련된 정보원들은 함정이 항구에 6개월 이상 있으면서 단지 2번만 바다로 출항했다고 POGO에 전해주었습니다. 또한 정보원들은 이 두번의 기간동안 함정에서 나타난 심각한 문제들을 우리에게 알려주었습니다. 두번의 시험항해기간중 4대의 엔진을 포함한 함정의 필수적인 구성품들이 고장났습니다. 덧붙여 최근 항해 중 함정 침수라는 결과를 낳은 추진축 수밀 고장이 발생하였습니다.

 추가적으로 Aviation Week가 제공해주었던 새로운 자료는 함정전체 체계에서 더 심각한 문제들이 LCS-1에서 나타났다는 것을 보여줍니다.(걷잡을 수 없는 부식과 침수현상을 포함하여)


 해군패턴의 불명료함

 해군은 이러한 문제들에 대한 정보를 밝히지 않았습니다. 2011연도 국방부 DOT&E 연례보고서는 "프로그램 부서는 어떠한 공식적인 개발과 관련된 T&E 보고서를 발표하지 않았다"고 언급했습니다. 또한 "해군은 실사격시험과 분석과정에서 발견된 취약성을 지속적으로 보고해야 한다"며 비판했습니다.

 펜타곤의 시험평가부서와 해군의 협력부족은 해군이 사업의 감시를 방해한 유일한 방법이 아니였습니다. 해군은 또한 LCS 사업을 반복적으로 변경했고, 이러한 변화에 의회가 대응하기에는 시간이 부족했습니다. Naval Affairs의 전문연구가인 Ronald O'Rourke는 2010년 12월 상원 군사위원회의 증언에서 "해군이 제시한 이중결정전략(dual-award strategy)은 LCS사업의 역사에서 세번째 변화이고 해군은 의회의 예산 검토주기의 늦은시기에 LCS의 미래와 관련된 중요한 선택이 포함이 전략을 의회에 제시했다"라고 말했습니다.

 함정의 계획과 장비고장에 근거하여 LCS는 계획과 같이 싱가포르 또는 다른 목적지에 배치될 준비가 되지 않았습니다. POGO의 입장은 LCS 계열형 중 단지 하나만이 필요하다는 것입니다. 그리고 현재의 이중개발전략은 한 기업의 정부보조금이나 마찬가지라는 것입니다. 결론적으로 우리는 납세자들을 위해 LCS의 한 계열형을 취소할 것을 권합니다. 이제 우리가 발견한 새로운 정보들에 기초하여 POGO는 더 많은 비용이 들고 심각한 결함이 있는 록히드마틴의 계열형(LCS-1 USS프리덤급)을 제거할 것을 추천합니다. 의회가 2013연도 예산을 위한 수권법안을 준비함에따라, 우리는 상원군사위원회의 위원들이 록히드마틴의 계열형을 완전히 취소한거나 적어도 해군이 우수한 품질을 제공하는 계열형을 선택하라는 지시를 해줄 것을 권합니다.





P.S) 살아난 듯 싶었던 USS 프리덤급과 제작사인 록히드마틴은 다시 2라운드 단두대매치의 현장으로 끌려가고 있는 듯 합니다. 그리고 미해군에게서 무엇인가 뒤가 구린 냄새가 폴폴 나는 것 같기도....




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